These are not applicable for the radioactive waste, hazardous waste, municipal solid waste and battery waste, which would be dealt under the respective rules. Prior to these rules, only occupiers with more than beds required to obtain authorization. Proper training has to be imparted by the occupier to the healthcare workers that the BMW is collected from all the Health Care stored, treated and disposed in an environmentally sound manner. The operators also have to inform the prescribed authority if any HCEs are not handing the segregated BMW as per the guidelines prescribed in the rules. The previous rules merely instructed the occupiers and operators to submit an annual report to the Prescribed Authority but no information on data to be furnished in the report was mentioned.
A detailed format for Annual Report has thus been included in the new Rules. Waste to Resources 15 The projections made by Planning Commission as well as Ministry of Power upto —32 indicate that two-third of power generation in the country would continue to depend on coal. The latent energy of its organic fraction can be recovered for gainful utilization through the adoption of suitable waste processing and treatment technologies.
Table 1 shows the process associated with different components of Municipal Solid Waste. The net energy yield depends upon the density and composition of wastes, relative percentage cent of the energy content of the organic matter can be recovered as heat energy, which can be utilized either for direct thermal application or for producing Figures 5 and 6 shows the how energy can be recovered by incineration and pyrolysis. Merits Reduction in the size of waste reduces the problems of its dumping Complete sterilization prevents the outbreak of epidemics Biologically hazardous waste is reduced to ash.
Demerits Air pollution cannot be avoided even in highly sophisticated plants.
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It is a high-investment system. Additional cost inputs are required for complete pollution control. Dioxins and furan emissions are hazardous. Treatment of ash for pollutants is expensive. Merits Handling of gas is easier than solid fuel.
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Reduction in volume reduces dumping Ash production is lesser as compared to incineration. There is no emission of hazardous gases. Demerits Plant requires regular maintenance. Operation and maintenance is very costly. It releases tar and volatile poisons into the environment. Organic methods are divided into two general categories.
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Refere Figure 7. In the aerobic degradation process, organic material is oxidized to give a humus product commonly called compost, which can be used as a fertilizer. As the aerobic degradation process involves decay of the organic material, such as garbage, leaves, manure, etc. Anaerobic digestion leads to a highly marketable product called methane. Composting Composting involves the breakdown of organic Waste in the presence of microorganisms, heat and moisture.
This can be carried out on a small scale in households or on a large scale depending upon the quantity of waste to be processed.
Three types of microorganisms are involved in the process of composting—bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, that act upon the waste to convert it into sugars, starch, and organic acids. These, in turn, are acted upon by high-temperature bacteria, which prevail in the compost heap and help to promote the stabilized compost. Composting has the following advantages: Recycling of waste by the generation of useful manure, which is organic in nature Reduction in volume of waste to be disposed of on land No requirement of any high-end technical expertise.
Some technologies for composting waste are listed below: Windrow compositing: Triangular piles of waste are created to allow diffusion of oxygen and retention of heat. Waste should preferably be piled under a roof to prevent exposure to rain, which can cause a run-off. Aeratedstaticpilecomposting:Mechanicalaeration of waste piles is done by placing them over a network of pipes connected to a blower. The blower supplies air for composting and hence creates a positive as well as a negative pressure.
Air circulation provides 02 and prevents heat build-up. Optimum temperature and moisture are maintained for microbial action. As the piles are not turned during the process, in order to achieve complete destruction of the pathogens, a layer of stabilized compost is placed over the pile to maintain the desired temperature. The retention time for completion of composting is 6—12 weeks.
In-vessel composting: This is a controlled process of composting where aeration, moisture, and temperature requirements for composting are maintained in a chamber or vessel.
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The time taken for composting is 1—4 weeks. The advantages of this system over others are that there is control of the environmental conditions for rapid composting as they occur inside a closed building, and the problems of malodour and leachate generation are minimal. Vermicomposting: This is a process, in which food material and kitchen waste including vegetables and fruit peelings, papers, etc. An aerobic condition is created by the exposure of organic waste in air. Anaerobic Digestion Various types of organic wastes, such as animal dung, sewage sludge and organic fraction of the MSW, can be anaerobically digested to give biogas and manure.
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Anaerobic Digestion involves the breakdown of organic compounds by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas, which is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. In addition to waste treatment, anaerobic bio degradation is advantageous due to the generation of clean fuel, which can be used for various thermal applications for power generation and for use of digested sludge as manure. The feasibility of biogas generation from the organic fraction of the MSW was known as early as the s.
Research on the degradation of municipal waste and biogas generation is at different levels and on different types of digestion processes. The various types of anaerobic digestion processes include conventional slurry digestion, dry digestion and two-phase digestion. Segregation and pre- Waste to Resources 19 processing for separation of biodegradable and non- biodegradable fraction is the foremost step in almost all categories of the anaerobic digestion processes.
Conventional Digestion The process is popular for biogas generation from concentration of 3—l0 per cent.
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The homogenous slurry prepared by mixing the solid with water is introduced into the digester and an equivalent amount of digested slurry is withdrawn, the volume of which is dependent on the retention time for digestion. Application of this design for the MSW does not appear to be feasible due to the mixing of very large volumes of water to attain the desired TS content.
Moreover, pre-processing is required to make homogenous slurry. Some of the processes based on continuous digestion have been used in more large-scale demonstration facilities for waste treatment in other countries.
RefCom process: Management, Inc. In this process, after mechanical segregation of the biodegradable organic material from waste, the waste was mixed with sewage sludge and water obtained from the dewatering of the digested sludge.
The mixture was fed into parallel digesters of m3 capacity. The monitoring of the system performance indicated an optimal retention time of 10—15 days with a gas yield of 0. It was necessary to maintain a pH of over 7 to prevent souring of the digester. After the initial screening and shredding for separation of non-biodegradable components, the waste is treated under mesophilic conditions at a TS concentration of 10 per cent with a retention time of 15 days.
The gas is used for mixing the contents. In addition to biogas, the digested sludge, after dewatering, is converted into manure after the stabilization process. Alternatively, the digested solids are blended with coal dust and are used as fuel pellets for various industrial and commercial applications.
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Cal recovery process: The cal recovery process is again based on the digestion of segregated biodegradable waste for municipal wastes at Los Angeles. Waste biogas process: In this process, the waste biogas, after the shredding and separation process, is digested under mesophilic conditions at a concentration of 5—l0 per cent after mixing with concentration of 7 per cent, and loading rate of 1. The digested sludge after drying can be used as a soil conditioner.
After the process of digestion at a TS concentration of 30—35 per cent, further stabilization occurs in 2—3 days. The overall retention time for the process is 21 days and the biogas yield is — m3 per tonnes of input. As in the continuous process, sludge dewatering provides Water for making up the initial TS concentration and the dried digested sludge is used as a soil conditioner after suitable processing to reduce the size.
The compost quality is high due to the absence of pathogens as a result of processing at thermophilic conditions and a high C:N ratio VALOGRA process This process can handle the TS content of the slurry in the range of 35—40 per cent with the agitation of the reactor contents by occasional supply of biogas under a pressure of 6—7 bars. BIOCEL process: A relatively cheaper and low- maintenance dry anaerobic system is the BIOCEL process where the organic fraction of solid waste in the presence of methanogenic bacteria, is allowed to remain under a plastic cover for 6—8 weeks resulting in methane, yield of m3 per tonnes of organic waste.
Preliminary experiments and pilot plant studies have been carried out by adopting this process.
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