The dream and its outcome


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New User? Get Password Click here to Sign In. Elite Member Individual Register. Toggle navigation. Now we came to know what are dreams and its duration, But …. Did anybody think about the chemistry of dreams? There are two reasons behind this is One reason is your body will not support when your brain is active Second reason is secretion of Acetylcholine and other dream chemicals in our body which will makes us awaken throughout the day.

Acetylcholine Acetylcholine is released in high levels as a result of wakefulness and alertness. Other dream chemicals which make us awaken during day time are Dopamine Glutamate Aspartate Histamine Serotonin Norepinephrine At the end of the day Acetylcholine and other chemicals makes us tired and from this time to until before you are going to sleep there is a raise in levels of chemical called Melatonin.

Melatonin Melatonin is a natural hormone made by your body's pineal gland. Oxytocin Oxytocin is a mammalian neurohypophysial hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. Related Articles 2, proteins present in HIV virus!

Olympic rings inspires chemical molecule Olympic Ian Morris Heilbron — synthesized natural vit- A James Batcheller Sumner — discoverer of protein John Alexander Reina Newlands — discoverer of pe Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov — Russian polymath. Related Products Oxytocin View Suppliers. Melatonin View Suppliers.

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Dream interpretation

The results from his studies, now published in the journal Dreaming , have confirmed that people can increase their chances of having a lucid dream. The study involved three groups of participants, and investigated the effectiveness of three different lucid dream induction techniques:. MILD mnemonic induction of lucid dreams -- which involves waking up after five hours of sleep and then developing the intention to remember that you are dreaming before returning to sleep, by repeating the phrase: "The next time I'm dreaming, I will remember that I'm dreaming.

By repeating a phrase that you will remember you're dreaming, it forms an intention in your mind that you will, in fact, remember that you are dreaming, leading to a lucid dream," says Dr Aspy, Visiting Research Fellow in the University's School of Psychology. Materials provided by University of Adelaide.

Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. The study involved three groups of participants, and investigated the effectiveness of three different lucid dream induction techniques: 1. Story Source: Materials provided by University of Adelaide. Dreams were also considered prophetic or omens of particular significance. He thought that the meaning of a dream image could involve puns and could be understood by decoding the image into its component words.

For example, Alexander, while waging war against the Tyrians, dreamt that a satyr was dancing on his shield. Freud acknowledged this example of Artemidorus when he proposed that dreams be interpreted like a rebus. In medieval Islamic psychology , certain hadiths indicate that dreams consist of three parts, and early Muslim scholars recognized three kinds of dreams: false, patho-genetic, and true.

The work is divided into 25 sections on dream interpretation, from the etiquette of interpreting dreams to the interpretation of reciting certain Surahs of the Qur'an in one's dream. He writes that it is important for a layperson to seek assistance from an alim Muslim scholar who could guide in the interpretation of dreams with a proper understanding of the cultural context and other such causes and interpretations.

It was a treatise on dreams , in which he was the first to distinguish between dream interpretation and the nature and causes of dreams. Ibn Shaheen states: "Interpretations change their foundations according to the different conditions of the seer of the vision , so seeing handcuffs during sleep is disliked but if a righteous person sees them it can mean stopping the hands from evil". Ibn Sirin said about a man who saw himself giving a sermon from the mimbar: "He will achieve authority and if he is not from the people who have any kind of authority it means that he will be crucified".

It is written in the Chuang-tzu: "Once Chuang Chou dreamed that he was a butterfly. He fluttered about happily, quite pleased with the state that he was in, and knew nothing about Chuang Chou. Presently he awoke and found that he was very much Chuang Chou again. Now, did Chou dream that he was a butterfly or was the butterfly now dreaming that he was Chou?

In the 17th century the English physician and writer Sir Thomas Browne wrote a short tract upon the interpretation of dreams.

Dream interpretation was taken up as part of psychoanalysis at the end of the 19th century; the perceived, manifest content of a dream is analyzed to reveal its latent meaning to the psyche of the dreamer. A paper [1] in by Carey Morewedge and Michael Norton in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology found that most people believe that "their dreams reveal meaningful hidden truths.


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This Freudian view of dreaming was endorsed significantly more than theories of dreaming that attribute dream content to memory consolidation, problem solving, or random brain activity. This belief appears to lead people to attribute more importance to dream content than to similar thought content that occurs while they are awake. In one study in the paper, Americans were more likely to report that they would miss their flight if they dreamt of their plane crashing than if they thought of their plane crashing the night before flying while awake , and that they would be as likely to miss their flight if they dreamt of their plane crashing the night before their flight as if there was an actual plane crash on the route they intended to take.

Participants in their studies were more likely to perceive dreams to be meaningful when the content of dreams was in accordance with their beliefs and desires while awake. People were more likely to view a positive dream about a friend to be meaningful than a positive dream about someone they disliked, for example, and were more likely to view a negative dream about a person they disliked as meaningful than a negative dream about a person they liked.

Dream - Wikipedia

It was in his book The Interpretation of Dreams [11] Die Traumdeutung ; literally "dream-interpretation" , first published in but dated , that Sigmund Freud first argued that the motivation of all dream content is wish-fulfillment later in Beyond the Pleasure Principle , Freud would discuss dreams which do not appear to be wish-fulfillment , and that the instigation of a dream is often to be found in the events of the day preceding the dream, which he called the "day residue.

In adults, however, the situation is more complicated—since in Freud's submission, the dreams of adults have been subjected to distortion, with the dream's so-called " manifest content " [24] being a heavily disguised derivative of the " latent dream-thoughts " [25] present in the unconscious. In Freud's original formulation the latent dream-thought was described as having been subject to an intra-psychic force referred to as "the censor"; in the more refined terminology of his later years, however, discussion was in terms of the super-ego and "the work of the ego 's forces of defense.

Freud's view was that dreams are compromises which ensure that sleep is not interrupted: as "a disguised fulfilment of repressed wishes," they succeed in representing wishes as fulfilled which might otherwise disturb and waken the dreamer. Freud's "classic" early dream analysis is that of " Irma's injection ": in that dream, a former patient of Freud's complains of pains.

The dream portrays Freud's colleague giving Irma an unsterile injection.

Dreams and Dreaming

Freud provides us with pages of associations to the elements in his dream, using it to demonstrate his technique of decoding the latent dream thought from the manifest content of the dream. Freud described the actual technique of psychoanalytic dream-analysis in the following terms, suggesting that the true meaning of a dream must be "weeded out" from dream: [28].

You entirely disregard the apparent connections between the elements in the manifest dream and collect the ideas that occur to you in connection with each separate element of the dream by free association according to the psychoanalytic rule of procedure. From this material you arrive at the latent dream-thoughts, just as you arrived at the patient's hidden complexes from his associations to his symptoms and memories The true meaning of the dream, which has now replaced the manifest content, is always clearly intelligible.

Freud listed the distorting operations that he claimed were applied to repressed wishes in forming the dream as recollected: it is because of these distortions the so-called "dream-work" that the manifest content of the dream differs so greatly from the latent dream thought reached through analysis—and it is by reversing these distortions that the latent content is approached.

The operations included: [29]. To these might be added "secondary elaboration"—the outcome of the dreamer's natural tendency to make some sort of "sense" or "story" out of the various elements of the manifest content as recollected. Freud, in fact, was wont to stress that it was not merely futile but actually misleading to attempt to "explain" one part of the manifest content with reference to another part as if the manifest dream somehow constituted some unified or coherent conception.

Freud considered that the experience of anxiety dreams and nightmares was the result of failures in the dream-work: rather than contradicting the "wish-fulfillment" theory, such phenomena demonstrated how the ego reacted to the awareness of repressed wishes that were too powerful and insufficiently disguised. Traumatic dreams where the dream merely repeats the traumatic experience were eventually admitted as exceptions to the theory. Freud famously described psychoanalytic dream-interpretation as "the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind"; he was, however, capable of expressing regret and dissatisfaction at the way his ideas on the subject were misrepresented or simply not understood: [30].

The assertion that all dreams require a sexual interpretation, against which critics rage so incessantly, occurs nowhere in my Interpretation of Dreams On another occasion, he suggested that the individual capable of recognizing the distinction between latent and manifest content "will probably have gone further in understanding dreams than most readers of my Interpretation of Dreams ".

In Your Dreams

Although not dismissing Freud's model of dream interpretation wholesale, Carl Jung believed Freud's notion of dreams as representations of unfulfilled wishes to be limited. Jung argued that Freud's procedure of collecting associations to a dream would bring insights into the dreamer's mental complex—a person's associations to anything will reveal the mental complexes, as Jung had shown experimentally [31] —but not necessarily closer to the meaning of the dream.

Jung believed the psyche to be a self-regulating organism in which conscious attitudes were likely to be compensated for unconsciously within the dream by their opposites. The self aspires to tell the ego what it does not know, but it should. This dialogue involves fresh memories, existing obstacles, and future solutions. Jung proposed two basic approaches to analyzing dream material: the objective and the subjective. Jung argued that the subjective approach is much more difficult for the dreamer to accept, but that in most good dream-work, the dreamer will come to recognize that the dream characters can represent an unacknowledged aspect of the dreamer.

Thus, if the dreamer is being chased by a crazed killer, the dreamer may come eventually to recognize his own homicidal impulses. Jung believed that archetypes such as the animus , the anima , the shadow and others manifested themselves in dreams, as dream symbols or figures. Such figures could take the form of an old man, a young maiden or a giant spider as the case may be. Each represents an unconscious attitude that is largely hidden to the conscious mind.

Although an integral part of the dreamer's psyche, these manifestations were largely autonomous and were perceived by the dreamer to be external personages. Acquaintance with the archetypes as manifested by these symbols serve to increase one's awareness of unconscious attitudes, integrating seemingly disparate parts of the psyche and contributing to the process of holistic self-understanding he considered paramount. Jung believed that material repressed by the conscious mind, postulated by Freud to comprise the unconscious, was similar to his own concept of the shadow, which in itself is only a small part of the unconscious.


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The dream and its outcome The dream and its outcome
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