Coping With Globalization. Globalization is dramatically reshaping policy landscapes, thereby creating new opportunities and threats for governments and Globalization is dramatically reshaping policy landscapes, thereby creating new opportunities and threats for governments and firms. The resultant restructuring of policy spaces requires an emphasis on the need to cope with globalization, since the distribution of its costs and benefits East Asia, Globalization and the New Economy. Modern logistics based on cheap communication and transportation are shifting the locus of production and the international division of labour between the West and Globalization and the Chinese City.
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Incorporating original fieldwork carried out over a period of more than ten years, combined with Incorporating original fieldwork carried out over a period of more than ten years, combined with innovative theoretical argument, Globalization, Culture and Society in Laos presents one of the first sociological investigations into modern Laos. Boike Rehbein gives a fascinating overview Handbook of Globalization and the Environment.
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With new material and up-to-date information, this book examines the current state of Iran, exploring Please log in to set a read status. Setting a reading intention helps you organise your reading. You can filter on reading intentions from the list , as well as view them within your profile. Setting up reading intentions help you organise your course reading. It makes it easy to scan through your lists and keep track of progress. Here's an example of what they look like:. For example, parents are not guaranteed the right to decide some matters in the upbringing of their children independent of societal regulation, and municipalities do not have unlimited jurisdiction in local matters, thus neither parents nor municipalities have absolute sovereignty.
Theorists have diverged over the desirability of increased absoluteness. A key element of sovereignty in a legalistic sense is that of exclusivity of jurisdiction. Specifically, the degree to which decisions made by a sovereign entity might be contradicted by another authority. Along these lines, the German sociologist Max Weber proposed that sovereignty is a community's monopoly on the legitimate use of force; and thus any group claiming the same right must either be brought under the yoke of the sovereign, proven illegitimate, or otherwise contested and defeated for sovereignty to be genuine.
Social institutions such as religious bodies, corporations, and competing political parties might represent de facto infringements on exclusivity.
De jure , or legal, sovereignty concerns the expressed and institutionally recognised right to exercise control over a territory. De facto , or actual, sovereignty is concerned with whether control in fact exists. Cooperation and respect of the populace; control of resources in, or moved into, an area; means of enforcement and security; and ability to carry out various functions of state all represent measures of de facto sovereignty. When control is practiced predominantly by military or police force it is considered coercive sovereignty.
On Sovereignty and Other Political Delusions
State sovereignty is sometimes viewed synonymously with independence , however, sovereignty can be transferred as a legal right whereas independence cannot. Alternatively, independence can be lost completely when sovereignty itself becomes the subject of dispute. The pre-World War II administrations of Latvia , Lithuania and Estonia maintained an exile existence and considerable international recognition whilst their territories were annexed by the Soviet Union and governed locally by their pro-Soviet functionaries.
When in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia re-enacted independence, it was done so on the basis of continuity directly from the pre-Soviet republics. In the case of Poland , the People's Republic of Poland which governed Poland from to is now seen to have been an illegal entity by the modern Polish administration.
The post Polish state claims direct continuity from the Second Polish Republic which ended in For other reasons however, Poland maintains its communist-era outline as opposed to its pre-World War II shape which included areas now in Belarus , Czech Republic , Lithuania , Slovakia and Ukraine but did not include some of its western regions that were then in Germany. At the opposite end of the scale, there is no dispute regarding the self-governance of certain self-proclaimed states such as Republic of Abkhazia , Republic of South Ossetia or the Republic of Kosovo see List of states with limited recognition since their governments neither answer to a bigger state, nor is their governance subjected to supervision.
The sovereignty i. Internal sovereignty is the relationship between a sovereign power and the political community. A central concern is legitimacy : by what right does a government exercise authority? Claims of legitimacy might refer to the divine right of kings , or to a social contract i. With Sovereignty meaning holding supreme, independent authority over a region or state, Internal Sovereignty refers to the internal affairs of the state and the location of supreme power within it. Internal sovereignty examines the internal affairs of a state and how it operates. It is important to have strong internal sovereignty in relation to keeping order and peace.
When you have weak internal sovereignty, organisations such as rebel groups will undermine the authority and disrupt the peace. The presence of a strong authority allows you to keep agreement and enforce sanctions for the violation of laws. The ability for leadership to prevent these violations is a key variable in determining internal sovereignty. The presence of strong internal sovereignty allows a state to deter opposition groups in exchange for bargaining.
It has been said that a more decentralized authority would be more efficient in keeping peace because the deal must please not only the leadership but also the opposition group. While the operations and affairs within a state are relative to the level of sovereignty within that state, there is still an argument between who should hold the authority in a sovereign state. This argument between who should hold the authority within a sovereign state is called the traditional doctrine of public sovereignty.
This discussion is between an internal sovereign or an authority of public sovereignty. An internal sovereign is a political body that possesses ultimate, final and independent authority; one whose decisions are binding upon all citizens, groups and institutions in society. Early thinkers believe sovereignty should be vested in the hands of a single person, a monarch.
They believed the overriding merit of vesting sovereignty in a single individual was that sovereignty would therefore be indivisible; it would be expressed in a single voice that could claim final authority. Jean-Jacques Rousseau rejected monarchical rule in favor of the other type of authority within a sovereign state, public sovereignty. Public Sovereignty is the belief that ultimate authority is vested in the people themselves, expressed in the idea of the general will.
This means that the power is elected and supported by its members, the authority has a central goal of the good of the people in mind. The idea of public sovereignty has often been the basis for modern democratic theory. Within the modern governmental system, internal sovereignty is usually found in states that have public sovereignty and rarely found within a state controlled by an internal sovereign. A form of government that is a little different from both is the UK parliament system.
John Austin argued that sovereignty in the UK was vested neither in the Crown nor in the people but in the " Queen-in-Parliament ". With these principles of parliamentary sovereignty majority control can gain access to unlimited constitutional authority, creating what has been called "elective dictatorship" or "modern autocracy".
Public sovereignty in modern governments is a lot more common with examples like the USA, Canada, Australia and India where government is divided into different levels. External sovereignty concerns the relationship between a sovereign power and other states. For example, the United Kingdom uses the following criterion when deciding under what conditions other states recognise a political entity as having sovereignty over some territory;. The Arantzazu Mendi ,  A.
External sovereignty is connected with questions of international law — such as: when, if ever, is intervention by one country into another's territory permissible? Following the Thirty Years' War , a European religious conflict that embroiled much of the continent, the Peace of Westphalia in established the notion of territorial sovereignty as a norm of noninterference in the affairs of other states , so-called Westphalian sovereignty , even though the actual treaty itself reaffirmed the multiple levels of sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire.
This resulted as a natural extension of the older principle of cuius regio, eius religio Whose realm, his religion , leaving the Roman Catholic Church with little ability to interfere with the internal affairs of many European states. It is a myth, however, that the Treaties of Westphalia created a new European order of equal sovereign states. In international law , sovereignty means that a government possesses full control over affairs within a territorial or geographical area or limit.
Determining whether a specific entity is sovereign is not an exact science, but often a matter of diplomatic dispute. There is usually an expectation that both de jure and de facto sovereignty rest in the same organisation at the place and time of concern. Foreign governments use varied criteria and political considerations when deciding whether or not to recognise the sovereignty of a state over a territory. Sovereignty may be recognized even when the sovereign body possesses no territory or its territory is under partial or total occupation by another power.
The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in of the Papal States by Italy and the signing of the Lateran Treaties in , a year period during which it was recognised as sovereign by many mostly Roman Catholic states despite possessing no territory — a situation resolved when the Lateran Treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City.
Another case, sui generis , though often contested, [ citation needed ] is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , the third sovereign entity inside Italian territory after San Marino and the Vatican City State and the second inside the Italian capital since in the Palazzo di Malta and the Villa Malta receive extraterritorial rights, in this way becoming the only "sovereign" territorial possessions of the modern Order , which is the last existing heir to one of several once militarily significant, crusader states of sovereign military orders.
These sovereign rights were never deposed, only the territories were lost. The governments-in-exile of many European states for instance, Norway, Netherlands or Czechoslovakia during the Second World War were regarded as sovereign despite their territories being under foreign occupation; their governance resumed as soon as the occupation had ended.
In it lost UN recognition to Chinese Communist -led People's Republic of China and its sovereign and political status as a state became disputed and it lost its ability to use "China" as its name and therefore became commonly known as Taiwan.
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The International Committee of the Red Cross is commonly mistaken to be sovereign. It has been granted various degrees of special privileges and legal immunities in many countries, including Belgium, France, Switzerland and soon in Ireland. Just as the office of head of state can be vested jointly in several persons within a state, the sovereign jurisdiction over a single political territory can be shared jointly by two or more consenting powers, notably in the form of a condominium.
Likewise the member states of international organizations may voluntarily bind themselves by treaty to a supranational organization, such as a continental union.
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In the case of the European Union members states this is called "pooled sovereignty". Another example of shared and pooled sovereignty is the Acts of Union which created the unitary state now known as the United Kingdom.
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A community of people who claim the right of self-determination based on a common ethnicity, history and culture might seek to establish sovereignty over a region, thus creating a nation-state. Such nations are sometimes recognised as autonomous areas rather than as fully sovereign, independent states.
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In a federal system of government , sovereignty also refers to powers which a constituent state or republic possesses independently of the national government. In a confederation constituent entities retain the right to withdraw from the national body, but in a federation [ citation needed ] member states or republics do not hold that right. Different interpretations of state sovereignty in the United States of America , as it related to the expansion of slavery and fugitive slave laws , led to the outbreak of the American Civil War.
Depending on the particular issue, sometimes both northern and southern states justified their political positions by appealing to state sovereignty. Fearing that slavery would be threatened by results of the presidential election , eleven slave states declared their independence from the federal Union and formed a new confederation. A number of modes for acquisition of sovereignty are presently or have historically been recognized in international law as lawful methods by which a state may acquire sovereignty over external territory.
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