We estimated that their exploitation, given projected production trends, could result in 1. The expected escalation in oil sands extraction thus portends extensive environmental impacts. Ocean Sand , Bahamas. NASA image acquired January 17, Though the above image may resemble a new age painting straight out of an art gallery in Venice Beach, California, it is in fact a satellite image of the sands and seaweed in the Bahamas. Tides and ocean currents in the Bahamas sculpted the sand and seaweed beds into these multicolored, fluted patterns in much the same way that winds sculpted the vast sand dunes in the Sahara Desert.
Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook. Asbestos in play sand. The authors were called on by one of the federal agencies to repeat the analysis of this sand , specifically for its asbestos content. The sand was pulverized and immersed in oils with known refractive indexes, and the predominant amphibole was characterized by polarized light microscopy. The optical characteristics were noted, and the indexes of refraction were measured and found to be consistent with tremolite.
They used the technique of x-ray diffraction, as did the author of the original report, which showed the presence of an amphibole mineral probably tremolite in the carbonate sand.
The technique was not used, and cannot be used, to distinguish between the tremolite habits asbestiform or nonasbestiform. An acid-insoluble residue, recovered from the carbonate sand , was examined by analytic electron microscopy. The tremolite grains were observed to consist of single untwinned, crystalline fragments. Few defects were noted.
Selected area electron diffraction nets were indicative of fragments lying near or at the common amphibole cleavage plane. These characteristics are consistent with cleavage fragments and not asbestos. Aspect ratios reflected short particles less than 5. On the basis of their examination of the carbonate play sand , they conclude that it did not contain tremolite asbestos. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field.
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A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1 a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2 the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release.
An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter.
Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria. Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications.
The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country. Sand Dunes with Frost. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right west to east. These landforms are located near This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km 1.
Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings. Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion Speleothems and Sand Castles. The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet.
The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches. Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters.
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Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones.
The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher p sand than the other two zones.
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Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci.
More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.
Northern Sand Sea. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels. Wave Characteristics at Moriches Inlet Bathymetric data collected at Humboldt Inlet, California, show sand waves.
A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution.
The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. Sand consolidation method. This is a new and improved sand consolidation method wherein an in-situ curing of a resinous fluid is undertaken.
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This method does not require that the resinous fluids be catalyzed at the surface of the well or well bore as is the case in previous methods. This method consists of, first, pumping an acid-curable consolidating fluid into the unconsolidated sand or earth formation and, secondly, pumping an oil overflush solution containing a halogenated organic or other organic acid or delayed acid-producing chemical.
A small quantity of diesel oilspacer may be used between the plastic catalyst solution. Trichloroacetic acid and benzotrichloride are satisfactory to add to the overflush solution for curing the resins. Booming Sand Dunes. The sound has a dominant audible frequency Hz and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away.
A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes.
The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park.
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